How to use Fish Scale Card Kits

1. In the field, place fish scales in envelope and fill out label
2. In the lab, label white template to correspond with envelope.
3. Position fish scales over numbers on template (numbers are right to left to appear in reverse order under microfiche).
4. Slip template between 2 acetate sheets, lining up notches.
5. Slide them through Ann Arbor™ press to make an impression of scales in acetate.
6. Place imprinted slide and template back in imprinted envelope for future analysis and storage. Reuse base acetate plate.

How To Use Drift Nets

1. Position net(s) in flowing water, using stakes
2. After placing net in water, frequently remove organisms and debris to prevent clogging of the net mouth.
3. Specify the time of study (1 to 3 hours is recommended) and use the same time length at each station.
4. Sampling between dusk and 1 A.M. is best.
5. Drift intensity measures the total number and biomass of organisms drifting past a given station.

How to Use Coliwasa Sampler

1. Lower coliwasa to desired level and pull up on rod at top to open valve, or open valve before submersing.
2. Tug slightly on rope to raise the sampler. This will set the check valve, trapping the sample inside.
3. When clear of the tank or drum, dispense the sample into an appropriate container or Whirl-Pak™ bag.

How to use Ann Arbor Roller Press

1. Place 2 slides between the rollers and adjust pressure.
2. Remove the slides, decrease the gap with dials.
3. Place the fish scale between the sides, run it through.
4. Increase or decrease pressure as needed.
6. Reuse the slide covering the scale over and over again.

“In our experimental work with the roller press, we sought to obtain a light impression in which the finest features of the scale, including the thin outer margin, were replicated. We are confident of having produced an impression which casts a projected image with features as fine and accurate as those from the scale itself and, in some instances, with less objectionable light refraction.”

From Smith, Stanford H., Method of Producing Plastic Impressions of Fish Scales Without Using Heat.

How to maintain your water bottles

1. Store hung from a hook, upright, with all valves open. Storing when closed may damage valves.
2. Guard the sampler from blows on the cylinder ends (this may knock them out of round), a common cause of leakage.
3. Worn or age-hardened seals should be immediately replaced to prevent leakage.
4. To avoid damage during use, the sampler should always be carried in a carry case.

How to maintain Kemmerer bottles

1. To avoid damage, use the case during transport or storage.
2. Store hung from a hook in a vertical position with all valves open. Storing closed many damage the valves.
3. Guard the sampler from blows on the cylinder ends (this may cause them to be knocked out of round), a common cause of sampler leakage.
4. Leakage may also occur from a bent central shaft. When this happens, it is best to replace the shaft.
5. Worn or age-hardened stoppers should be replaced to prevent leakage. Never remove seals when dry. Moisten first, then grasp with a side-to-side motion. Never attempt to remove seal in wet or dry conditions with a direct pulling motion. This will shorten stopper life dramatically.

How does the Shipek Grab operate?

When the grab touches the bottom, inertia from a self-contained weight releases a catch and helical springs rotate the inner half cylinder by 180°. After turning, the scoop remains closed by the residual torque of the scoop spring. Because the rotation of the bucket is extremely rapid, its shear strength is far greater than the sediment strength, thus cutting cleanly, particularly in soft clays, muds, silts & sands.

After closing, the sample has optimum protection from washout during retrieval by the cylindrical design. This is because, unlike most bottom samplers, the bucket closes with its separation plane aligned in a horizontal rather than in vertical direction. Good samples can be retrieved even when pebbles as large as 2 to 5 cm prevent the bucket from closing properly. And, if you take care to rotate the bucket, you can prevent sample washout completely.

On the deck of your boat, the scoop is quickly removed from the frame by releasing two retaining latches, one at each side of the body. Your sample is then ready for immediate study or transport.

How does the K-B corer work?

Aircraft cable fits into a closing trip mechanism at the stop of the head assembly. When a messenger strikes the trip lever, a neoprene valve drops and seals the core tube under the head assembly. A suction, formed between the top valve and the core sample, creates a partial vacuum inside the core tube as the sampler is raised. This partial vacuum helps hold the sample in the core or liner tube, thus allowing collection of all but the soupiest samples.

How do I use Turtox Tow Nets?

1. Attach a stout line to the top swivel line.
2. Tow net slowly, regulating depth by speed.
3. Tie on a tow weight for horizontal sampling

How do I use the Mini-Surber Sampler?

1. While setting and sampling with the surber, be careful not to disturb the substrate upstream from the sample area. This could cause organisms from outside the sample area to be caught in the net.
2. Set the surber with the net upright, water flowing into the net. The water cannot flow over the top of the net or some of the sample could be lost downstream.
3. Set the open frame on the stream bottom, marking off the area to be sampled.
4. Being careful not to disturb the sample area in the frame, block off any gaps where water can run under the frame or the net. Use surrounding substrate materials. (In a stronger current you may have to hold the surber in place for sampling.)
5. Carefully turn over and hand-rub all the stones inside the frame to dislodge any organisms that may be clinging to them. Before discarding them, examine each one by eye. Sometimes insect larvae and pupae cling very tightly. Make sure everything gets caught in the sampler net.
6. Stir the remaining gravel and sand with your hands or sticks to a depth of 5 to 10 cm. This will dislodge bottom-dwelling organisms. Hand-pick snails and other “heavier” organisms that are not picked up by the current.
7. Keep an eye on the net. If it becomes too clogged, sample can be lost from backwash.
8. On shore, invert the net into a sample container or a sieve with the same or smaller mesh size. Rinse down the net. Carefully examine the net for clinging organisms. Remove with forceps.
9. Rinse down the sampler after each use. Let it dry completely before storage.